Yaşar Mahsut Dinçel, Yavuz Arıkan, Devrim Özer, Şeckin Basılgan

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Metin Sabancı Baltalimanı Bone and Joint Diseases Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Achilles tendon; familial hypercholesterolemia; flexor hallucis longus transfer; quadriceps tendon graft; swelling; xanthoma.


Achilles tendon xanthomas are rarely seen masses that are highly associated with hyperlipidemia. They are manifested in two types: Xanthomas developed secondary to familial hypercholesterolemia and cerebrotendinous xanthomatoses. In this report, we present a case of bilateral Achilles tendon xanthoma secondary to familial hypercholesterolemia and resection along with a portion of the Achilles tendon. The patient was a 49-year-old male who presented to our clinic with complaints of difficulty walking and swelling in both heels. The swellings had started insidiously without a trauma history. The xanthomas were operated at different time points, albeit with the same surgical technique. Quadriceps tendon graft and flexor hallucis longus transfer was used for autografting. Xanthoma should be considered in cases with swellings in the Achilles tendon. Total resection is necessary to avoid recurrence of the xanthomas. Large gaps formed after resection can be filled and reconstruction of the Achilles tendon can be realized using quadriceps tendon autografts (containing bony fragments) and the flexor hallucis longus tendon. We believe a functional ankle and an Achilles tendon can be achieved with the employment of this technique.