Mehmet Erdem, Cengiz Şen, Taner Güneş, Bora Bostan

Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Ortopedi ve Travmatoloji Anabilim Dalı, Tokat

Keywords: Biomechanics; knee joint/anatomy & histology; leg/anatomy & histology/radiography; reference values.


Objectives: We investigated frontal plane alignment and orientation features of individuals living in the district of Tokat, Turkey. Subjects and methods: Axial alignments were evaluated on standing weight-bearing orthoroentgenographies of 26 male and 25 female healthy volunteers. The mean age was 34 years (range 19 to 59 years) in males, and 41 years (range 19 to 63 years) in females. The results of the measurements were compared to those reported in the literature.
Results: Measurements showed that the angle between the mechanical axes of the femur and tibia was 1.2° of varus and that the mechanical axis of the lower extremity passed 4.8 mm medial to the center of the knee. The mean femoral neck-shaft angle was 127.6°, and the angle between the mechanical and anatomical axes of the femur was 7.4° of valgus. The anatomical axis of the femur passed 9 mm medial to the intercondylar notch, not through the center of the notch. The mean orientation angle of the distal femur with the mechanical axis measured 88.2° with approximately 2° of valgus, and the mean proximal tibial orientation angle measured 87.8° with approximately 2° of varus. The mean distal tibial orientation angle was 88.2° with approximately 2° of valgus.
Conclusion: Our results are consistent with those of similar studies in the literature. Since our data concern only individuals from a specific part of the country, multicenter studies are needed to draw average reference values of the Turkish population regarding alignment and orientation of the lower extremity.