Hydroxychloroquine induces oxidative stress and impairs fracture healing in rats
Duran Topak1, Kaan Gürbüz2, Fatih Doğar1, Elçin Bakır3, Perihan Gürbüz4, Emine Kılınç5, Ökkeş Bilal1, Ayşe Eken3
1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye
2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kayseri City Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Türkiye
3Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Türkiye
4Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Türkiye
5Department of Pathology, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye
Keywords: Bone, fracture, healing, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, oxidative stress.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) induced oxidative stress and how it affected the union of bone fractures in an experimental rat model.
Materials and methods: A total of 48 Wistar albino male rats were used. The rats were divided into six groups. To investigate the effects of oral administration of HCQS at varying doses between the third and sixth weeks, fracture healing processes were evaluated using radiography, histopathology, biochemistry, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured to analyze the relationship between HCQS and oxidative stress.
Results: Radiographic scores, alkaline phosphatase levels, callus/diaphysis ratio, callus development, and bone mineral density were significantly lower in rats given HCQS at three and six weeks compared to the control group (p<0.005). When oxidative stress parameters were compared among the groups, all antioxidant parameters were statistically significant, indicating that antioxidant systems played a role in peripheral blood, when HCQS was used (p<0.005).
Conclusion: Oral HCQS intake impairs the fracture healing process by causing oxidative stress in rats. However, further biomolecular researches are needed to understand the underlying mechanism of these effects.
Citation: Topak D, Gürbüz K, Doğar F, Bakır E, Gürbüz P, Kılınç E, et al. Hydroxychloroquine induces oxidative stress and impairs fracture healing in rats. Jt Dis Relat Surg 2023;34(2):i-xi. doi: 10.52312/jdrs.2023.976.