Analysis of prognostic factors and histopathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma
Furkan Erdoğan1, Hikmet Çinka2, Bahattin Çağdaş Akman3, Hüseyin Sina Coşkun4, Nevzat Dabak4
1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Amasya University Sabuncuoğlu Şerefeddin Training and Research Hospital, Amasya, Türkiye
2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Karasu State Hospital, Sakarya, Türkiye
3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Alaca State Hospital, Çorum, Türkiye
4Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine, Samsun, Türkiye
Keywords: Chemotherapy, osteosarcoma, prognosis, survival.
Objectives: This study aims to examine the clinical results of patients who underwent medical and surgical treatment for osteosarcoma, to determine the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates, and to examine the effects of prognostic factors on these rates.
Patients and methods: Between January 2005 and January 2020, a total of 64 patients (38 males, 26 females; mean age: 20.9±11.5 years; range, 6 to 70 years) who received medical and surgical treatment for osteosarcoma were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, follow-up period, tumor location and size, tumor stage and necrosis rate, metastatic disease, surgical treatments, postoperative complications, local recurrence, and metastasis were recorded. The relationship of these factors with the survival was examined.
Results: The median follow-up was 51.6 (range, 3 to 156) months. The most common tumor localization was in the distal femur with 42 (65.6%) patients and the most common histopathological subtypes were conventional osteosarcoma in 50 (78.1%) patients. The OS rates were 91.6% at one year, 65.9% at five years, and 51.6% at 10 years. With the exception of two patients who died during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, all patients underwent surgical treatment. The addition of chemotherapy + radiotherapy in the treatment did not provide any benefits in terms of survival and recurrence compared to the group that was not added, and the five-year OS rate was 79.3% compared to 20.7%, respectively. The overall 10-year survival rates were 83.9% and 37.2% in the group with a good response (≥90%) and poor response (<90%) to treatment (p=0.012). The mean survival time of three patients who presented with pathological fractures was shorter than the others (p>0.05). Surgical margin was ≤2 mm in 27 (42.2%) patients, >2 mm in 30 (46.9%) patients, and surgical margin was positive in five (7.8%) patients. The mean OS in the group with a surgical margin closure of >2 mm was 10.8±1.9 years and was longer than the other groups (p=0.047).
Conclusion: Metastasis at the time of diagnosis, <90% tumor necrosis, a tumor size of ≥10 cm, and metastasis development were significantly associated with poor survival and were found to be independent prognostic factors. The OS rate in the patient group with Stage III-IV response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy given the cisplatin + doxorubicin protocol was found to be better than those given the European and American Osteosarcoma Studies (EURAMOS) protocol. More research is needed to determine the most optimal chemotherapy protocols in this patient population. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach in treatment is of utmost importance to improve oncological outcomes.
Citation: Erdoğan F, Çinka H, Akman BÇ, Coşkun HS, Dabak N. Analysis of prognostic factors and histopathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma. Jt Dis Relat Surg 2023;34(1):196-206. doi: 10.52312/jdrs.2023.902