Ekin Kaya Şimşek1, Bahtiyar Haberal1, Yeşim Korkmaz Kasap2, Erkan Yurtcu3

1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Başkent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Medical Biology, Başkent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Medical Biology, Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Kırıkkale, Turkey

Keywords: Cell viability, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, genotoxicity, in vitro, wound healing

Abstract

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate wound healing effects of in vitro radial extracorporeal shock wave (rESW) application on mouse fibroblasts and whether the cytotoxic effect of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) was due to a possible genotoxic effect.

Patients and methods: After creating an in vitro wound healing model in L929 mouse fibroblast culture, fibroblasts were stimulated with a frequency of 3 Hz, and 100, 250, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 pulses shock waves were applied. Energy flux densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.23 mJ/mm2 (14.3 MPa) at a constant pressure level of 0.5 and 1 bar were applied. Wound healing, cell viability, and genotoxicity were evaluated at 24 and 48 h.

Results: All shot numbers for both pressures significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.05). For both 0.5 and 1 bar pressures, in both intervals, the rate of wound healing decreased, regardless of the number of shots (p<0.05). In vitro genotoxic damage was detected at both 0.5 and 1 bar pressures, in both time intervals, regardless of the number of shots. The genotoxic damage increased from 24 to 48 h.

Conclusion: The study results suggest that, when ESWT is applied in this in vitro experimental setup, cell viability decreases and wound healing is delayed under all conditions. Furthermore, genotoxic damage can be prevented by using shots below 1,000 pulses. Therefore, while investigating the therapeutic effect of ESW therapy in vitro, the upper limit for the number of shots should be 1,000 pulses.