A brief history of artificial intelligence and robotic surgery in orthopedics & traumatology and future expectations
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Başkent University, Adana Turgut Noyan Training and Research Center, Adana, Turkey
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, decision support, robotic surgery.
Recently, the rate of the production and renewal of information makes it almost impossible to be updated. It is quite difficult to process and interpret large amounts of data by human beings. Unlimited memory capacities, learning abilities, artificial intelligence (AI) applications, and robotic surgery techniques cause orthopedic surgeons to be concerned about losing their jobs. The idea of AI, which was first introduced in 1956, has evolved over time by revealing deep learning and evolutionary plexus that can mimic the human neuron cell. Image processing is the leading improvement in developed algorithms. Theoretically, these algorithms appear to be quite successful in interpreting medical images and orthopedic decision support systems for preoperative evaluation. Robotic surgeons have emerged as significant competitors in carrying out the taken decisions. The first robotic applications of orthopedic surgery started in 1992 with the ROBODOC system. Applications started with hip arthroplasty continued with knee arthroplasty. Publications indicate that problems such as blood loss and infection caused by the long operation time in the early stages have been overcome in time with the help of learning systems. Comparative studies conducted with humans indicate that robots are better than humans in providing limb lengthening, patient satisfaction, and cost. As in all new technologies, the developments in both AI applications and robotics surgery indicate that technology is in favor in terms of cost/benefit analyses. Although studies indicate that new technologies are more successful than humans, the replacement of technology with experience and long-term results with traditional methods will not be observed in the near future.
The author declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The author received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.